Guide language: Found an army 93 years to celebrate a the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, sina military affairs spreads out especially ” 93 things narrate journey ” series serialize, with the harships course that 93 stories on my army history tell about people army 93 years.
▲ on November 29, 1948, smooth ferry battle begins. On December 24, people liberation army liberated Zhang Jia mouth. What this photograph mirrors is the scene that my army enters large area gate.
Smooth ferry battle (on November 29, 1948, on January 31, 1949) in, people liberation army with casualties the cost of 39 thousand person, eliminate reach adapt Kuomintang army add up to 520 thousand more than person, controlled Beijing University of boreal Ping Jihua piece land. The thing is lain between 60 old, with grandchildren ” 3 cut down ” martial thought will examine, analyse and unscramble smooth ferry battle, to new period theory of innovation military affairs has great real sense.
” grandchildren strategics ” seek attack a ground of make clear the purpose from the very beginning to put forward ” the law of every resort to arms, the whole nation is on, the take second place that break a country; Horse and foot is on, broken army take second place; Total force is on, broken brigade take second place… ” ” complete ” get the better of a thought, specific clarify its ” 3 cut down ” thought: “Cut down of the arms on reason is sought, next cut down is handed in, next cut down arms, its fall attack a town. The law that studies a city is act against one’s will. … resort to arms of reason be apt to person, battle of arms and rather than also, unplug city and rather than of the person is attacked also, the country that damages a person and rather than is long also. Fall with contending for Yu Tian completely surely, reason arms does not pause and benefit but complete, this seeks the way that study also. ” my army was shown adequately already in smooth ferry battle ” 3 cut down ” ruse is artistic, created peace to liberate the example with smooth north again.
– ” cut down is sought ” core is to throw into confusion enemy strategy intent, send enemy at passivity
Two army be at war, having the task that decides a meaning and move is right warlike situation should have proper analysis, right enemy force of my bilateral military strength, battle, logistics is ensured and assist force to want to have mathematical calculation, form the strategic intent that battle surelies win and battle deploy from this, namely grandchildren tells ” 3 cut down ” reach ” know to get the better of have 5 ” ruse.
Last a period of time of distant Shenyang campaign 52 days, my army annihilate enemy 36 division, 473 thousand person, make northeast whole area is obtained liberate. The victory of distant Shenyang battle makes martial situation of the whole nation produced fundamental change, people liberation army prevails on quality not only, and also hold a dominant position on the amount. Stay alone in smooth, ferry, piece (Zhang Jia mouth) the China north of area of and other places ” put down always ” Fu Zunyi group already became commander in chief ” a extremely frightened person ” , be faced with the combination of field army of northeast, China north to hit, very adverse condition is in on the strategy. However, at call together of the report at the beginning of November 1948 in Jiang Jieshi Fu Zunyi arrives when Nanjing hold a conference or consultation, authority of China north party card, plan as a whole economic power over major issues, after the influence of aid of Pacific Ocean fleet awards the United States that accepts Qingdao directly Fu Zunyi on the west, fu Zunyi unexpectedly by this ” 3 power power ” developed brains. He thinks northeast field army needs to be entered to the ability of rest and reorganization of half an year via 3 months at least close. Accordingly, control area of smooth, ferry to be able to use army of augment of American aid and the manpower of China north, material resources already, can be in clamp down on of China north, northeast liberation army again China north, advantageous to whole war situation, then with Jiang protocol ” of short duration defends smooth ferry, hold interest of big talk, augment, in order to watch when change ” guiding principle. Pulled out early or late at medium in November, the last ten-day of a month bear defending troops of and other places of island of emperor of custom of heart, Baoding, hill, the Qin Dynasty, its the army deploy below command is in east county removing Luan, bavin channel fort comes on the west (conceive today how) be as long as on the railroad along the line of 500 kilometers, place into ” single-line battle array ” . This deploy mirrors a Jiang, Fu Ji adequately to have adherence the desire of smooth, ferry, have again at any time south the purpose that remove or escapes on the west. The fact proves, this is Jiang, teach the pen of one defeat utterly to warlike situation analysis and strategic deploy.
Fu Zunyi group ” defend decide hard, hesitation is difficult definitely ” . In view of this, the the Central Military Commission is decisive in the center of me decision, launch smooth ferry campaign ahead of schedule. Satisfy rest and reorganization of your northeast field army after a month, enter secretly close, assemble northeast, China north two big field armies and local unit in all 1 million person (additionally 300 thousand laborer is followed army the action and 1.5 million masses and Che Xiuqiao of 340 thousand animal power pave a road, carriage goods and materials is assisted fight) , determination eliminates Fu Zunyi group in China north to show the ground, both neither Rangjina escapes, also do not let its remove on the west. Basic strategic deploy is: Above all by on the west eastwards ground of one by one captures teach department, stall Jiang is army, with living firmly the enemy of the whole area that make the same score ferry, cut off both ends next, isolated among, break up surround, annihilate individually.
According to central the Central Military Commission about ” Fu Zunyi the group is eliminated in China north to show the ground ” fight determination and basic strategic deploy, the headquarters of smooth ferry campaign that comprises by Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan and Nie Rong Zhen (total the front committee) , direct those who make the same score ferry battle to attend a war army is in the first phase of battle (came on November 29, 1948 on December 21) finished smoothly ” break up surround, break enemy escape road ” the task, make Fu Zunyi army is immersed in completely ” be about to defend cannot, do not be about to escape ” passive condition, threw into confusion completely his strategic intent. This is assure of vanquish the enemy at all with political ruse, those who await the enemy is disaster necessarily.
– ” cut down is handed in ” masterstroke is to use contradiction, move is contradictory, send enemy at centrifugal
Look from historical angle, of Jiang Jieshi ” art of binary direct troops ” the failure that is him early is buried played the root of the trouble. Alleged ” art of binary direct troops ” it is to speak a body the Jiang Jieshi at Shanghai beach, faction thought is confirmed. In direct troops respect, he calls the unit that masters by him trusted follower direct line of descent, in the center of army, each ” vassal ” the unit that the palm charges calls a less known and inferior brand of collateral line, place army. Execute for a long time ” believe this doubt he, say turkey to one and bazzard to another ” policy. Accordingly, in the army of Kuomintang element has ” close woman is born and stepmother is raised ” complaint. This kind of condition is passable below suitable condition and high pressure maintain, once the current political situation has,change, can contradict fascicular, suspicious each other, seemingly in harmony but actually at variance, each have plan.
Fu Zunyi is the able person that Yan Xishan belongs to Jin Jun. Ministry of the rate when holding the post of a division commander 1927 and Feng Jun fight, an isolated force defends a city in March beyond, then with ” be good at defending a city ” celebrated. Held the post of Jin Jun 1929 the 10th army army commander. The Jiang Yan Fengzhan that attended to force its fall out of power is a purpose in order to turn over Jiang 1930 is contended for (also call Central Plains big fight) , hold the post of Yan Jun the 2nd Lu Jun commander in chief. After the war fails, be adapted by Jiang Jieshi, Zhang Xueliang, attend the War of Resistance Against Japan. After war of resistance against aggression wins, hold the post of Zhang Yuan early or late ” pacificate government office ” director and China north ” put down always ” commander-in-chief. Nevertheless, direct line of descent is divided in Jiang, teach with what be not direct line of descent is the heart knows abdomen in two people bright. The show that the Dou Youming in this plan in smooth ferry battle and deploy process shows. For example, jiang Jieshi is in prewar award Fu Zunyi ” 3 authority ” no more than is hook in Fu Zunyi dies for him defend a city. And ” single-line battle array ” battle deploy, in the center of army place troops on garrison duty makes the same score and other places of buy of the Langfang to the south of, Tianjin, pond, Tang Shan in north; Teach department place troops on garrison duty is made the same score in north reach north to make the same score come with Xi Zhihuai, announce is changed, and other places of fort of channel of mouth of Zhang Bei, Zhang Jia, bavin, have however ” be strange bedfellows ” disrelish. To Jiang Jieshi, once make the same score ferry fall,he hopes of course, continue to help teach department from maritime south remove the Yangtse River with south continue to die for Jiang Jiawang face; If teach ministry refuses, also want in the center of army recall Changjiang Delta, the purpose delimits river and treat. And of Fu Zunyi once,planning is however fall, can escape to peaceful far adherence wait for change. In the meantime, fasten in teach army and in the center of army attrition, complaint and complaint also exist in association.
People liberation army concerns a section (politics announce, information, enemy labour) couplet is organized with subterranean party and the well-known public figure with bigger impact makes full use of the historical kind and enmity of Jiang, teach and actual contradiction, in process of smooth ferry campaign, be aimed at the adverse situation that Fu Zunyi group faces, disclose the cruel sex that Jiang Jieshi dominates autocratically ceaselessly, act wilfully the disloyal sex that starts civil war, with personal illicit following of press hook in is the tricky sex that its die. Publicize warlike situation take a sudden turn and become worse rapidly and the inevitability with Jiangjia ruined dynasty repeatedly, break away from Jiang side, the just sex of forsake darkness for light, atone for one’s crimes by doing, to the necessity of people offer an apology. In this kind powerful political offensive falls, teach feels to the distrust of Jiang and suspicious each other farther aggravate, fight quickness of officers and soldiers is weakened, the footing of the accept a challenge that defend a city shakes further, pondering over the mood of what course to follow to be full of teach is a group of people of same interest. Fall in this kind of circumstance just about, the delegate of the delegate that teach makes Yi Yi expedite low administrative levels like that and people liberation army undertakes the gender negotiates be contacted secretly and exploring trying to find out the real intention. This is smooth ferry battle in ” cut down is handed in ” marked characteristic, laid preliminary foundation for the formal negotiation later.
– ” cut down arms ” with the basis that attack a town: With a view to changes, temper justice with mercy
In the center of basis of people liberation army the strategic deploy of the the Central Military Commission, come from November 29, 1948 on December 21 last a period of time 23 days, finished smoothly ” break up surround, break enemy escape road ” the task. Right now, fu Zunyi group already by ” a extremely frightened person ” become ” basket medium bird ” , lose the freedom of motor-driven completely. And people liberation army turns quickly to carry out ” eat off both ends, isolated among ” task of battle of the 2nd phase. The 2nd phase comes from December 22, 1948 on January 15, 1949 last a period of time 24 days. On December 22, line people liberation army is in on the west surround and annihilate of new security personnel Fu Jun brunt the 35th army military headquarters and two division. On December 23, the mouth defends Home Zhang enemy 54 thousand person by north to on the west break out of an encirclement, be annihilated to be in Home Zhang by the liberation army mouth with boreal area, liberated Zhang Jia mouth. Be in east line, after northeast field army surrounds Tianjin, prepare to attack a town at the same time, launch peaceful offensive at the same time, defend to Tianjin enemy the warning that issues disarm. Chen Changjie of Tianjin fielding commander is self-reliant ” big Tianjin fort is changed ” , reject disarm. Northeast on January 14, 1949 field army centers 22 division, adopt ” the thing is right into, by the waist is cut off, first south hind north, each checkmate ” fight deploy, defend to Tianjin enemy launch general attack. Only 40 minutes are broken through enemy solid defence of a city, via 29 hours of hassle, at 15 days 15 when emancipatory Tianjin, full wipe out is defended enemy 130 thousand person, hold captive defends Chen Changjie of city commanding officer. 17 days liberated pond buy again, block the enemy up dead by maritime south the passageway that escape.
The major victory of battle of new security personnel, Zhang Bei, Tianjin, make Fu Zunyi group already sufferred heavy casualities even more 1/3. North is smooth already sink the attacking army has reached the city gates of 1 million main forces is isolated the hopeless situation that does not have aid. This is liberated for boreal smooth peace laid solid foundation.
– of grandchildren ” complete ” getting the better of a thought is with powerful military affairs force is prop up. “Complete ” with ” broken ” , “Cut down ” with ” attack ” it is adj and unified
From the point of the global plan of smooth ferry battle, destroy to give birth to life property safety with people to protect ancient capital north to make the same score what do not get flames of war, strive the main content that peace liberates north to make the same score also is global ruse. For example, the the Central Military Commission sends Lin Biao, Luo Ronghuan in the center of December 11, 1948 about smooth ferry battle fight in guiding principle text ” north makes the same score an area ” the platoon is in of order of 5 big charge finally, to strive for peace to liberate leave more time; In the process that develops in battle, organize through subterranean party (the daughter that includes Fu Zunyi) the high-level democracy personage with noisy to Fu Youying force undertakes to Fu Zunyi counterespionage works ceaselessly, make Fu Zunyi forsake darkness for light-leave the reactionary side and cross over to the side of progress, do not become historical guilty person; Battle of the first phase ” break up surround, break enemy escape road ” reflected central the Central Military Commission ” Fu Zunyi the group is eliminated in China north to show the ground ” determination, of the 2nd phase ” eat off both ends, isolated among ” the intent that implicit peace liberates north to make the same score. Anyhow, the ruse of equal to solving north problem is ” base oneself upon captures at the armed strength, strive peace is liberated ” . Final result should be inspected battle develops metabolic case and decide.
The element that boreal smooth peace liberates is many sided. To people liberation army, favorable warlike situation, powerful armament, enough logistics is assisted, fight of accurate warlike strategy, brilliant campaign director, exalted officers and soldiers, fruitful politics offensive, suitable common feelings of people the morality and justice of travel acts… what all these formed peace to liberate north to make the same score is powerful. And to Fu Zunyi group, of disloyal war lift, passive payable war situation evolves, the leeway of thing both ends is cut off, in order to comprise ” China north combines a government ” what imagine for conditional peace talks is undone, make he ” defend a city to wait for change ” the purpose is hit annihilatively. Be in Tianjin especially fall, north makes the same score the circumstance of sink hopeless situation to fall, comrade Mao Zedong was published on January 14, 1949 ” the statement about the current political situation ” , point out clearly: “Kuomintang is reactionary and regnant orgnaization be about to crumble, be attributed to eliminate ” , “The Chinese Communist is willing to undertake on the foundation of 8 conditions peace negotiates ” . Emphasize pointing out ” the reactionary style that defends to any daring, must determined, complete, clean, all eliminate ” . Accordingly, liberation army of smooth ferry battle line issued ultimatum to Fu Zunyi on January 18: “It is disarm, it is to accept peace to adapt, will attack a town with mathematical technique otherwise. ” set final answer time limit. To Fu Zunyi group, this is two ecstatic and abjection shocks are played. Fu Zunyi accepted the condition that peace adapts on January 20 eventually, send pair of commander-in-chief Deng Bao Shan and negotiation of people liberation army, liberate the agreement with peaceful north at reaching peace on January 21. The liberation army entered city relieve a garrison on January 31, ancient capital north makes the same score declare peace to liberate.
Review overall situation of smooth ferry battle, we can reach the following conclusion: Of grandchildren ” complete ” getting the better of a thought is with powerful military affairs force is prop up. “Complete ” with ” broken ” , “Cut down ” with ” attack ” it is adj and unified, can changing each other below certain condition. Be good at consider the situation only, analyse warlike situation correctly, set out from the highest interest of country and people, mathematical calculation, foresighted will handsome, ability holds correctly, apply neatly, achieve expectant goal.
Cai Renshan (committee member of former deputy politics holds military region of author department Jinan concurrently secretary of discipline examination committee, lieutenant general)